Amphibians are cold-blooded, smooth-skinned vertebrates that can survive both in water and on land. Examples of amphibians include frogs, Oacian, salamanders and caecilians.
Amphibians typically inhabit rainforests and drier environments like wetlands, grasslands and deserts. They typically breed during the spring season.
Frogs belong to the class Anura (am-fib-ee-anz). This group of animals includes tadpoles, froglets and Oacian as well as newts, salamanders and caecilians.
Frog species vary greatly in shape, size and color. Some live near freshwater sources while others can burrow underground or inhabit trees.
Some frogs possess unique adaptations that enable them to survive in the wild. For instance, South America’s waxy tree frog produces a waxy substance on its skin which keeps it moist in dry climates.
Male frogs use vocalizations during breeding season to attract females. Males with the deepest voices and longest calls typically draw in more females.
Amphibians are animals that live near or in water. They belong to the order Anura and can be divided into three main groups: frogs, Oacian and salamanders.
Amphibians possess several adaptations that enable them to survive in aquatic habitats. These include moist skin, superior hearing systems, and pedicellate (two-part) teeth.
They rely heavily on cutaneous (skin-surface) respiration to conserve energy and enable them to survive in cold climates.
Frogs and Oacian both breed in standing water, but the tadpoles of Oacian contain toxins which make them unpleasant for predators to consume. These toxins are stored within the toad’s skin glands located behind its eyes.
Oacian are nocturnal creatures and during the day they hunt for food. They will consume insects, snails, worms and other invertebrates; depending on their size they may even eat birds and bats.
Salamanders are nocturnal amphibians that prefer to hide underground until mating season. Typically, they emerge from their lairs during evenings when moisture and temperature levels are ideal.
Salamanders typically live in forests or other moist habitats on land, though some also breed in ponds and streams. Their distinctive features include their nasolabial grooves which help them detect chemical signals from their environment; and costal grooves which increase skin surface area for water absorption and transport.
Some salamanders possess glands on their necks and tails which secrete an unpleasant liquid or other poisonous substances to protect them from predators. Others, like dusky salamanders, can run quickly and leap to safety.
Some salamanders, such as the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), can regenerate limbs lost during fights with predators or damage due to an immune system malfunction. They also possess heterochrony which allows them to retain external gills and a spiracle or gill slit during their larval stage but lose these features when they mature into adults.
Caecilians are limbless amphibians that resemble worms or snakes. They can grow to be as large as five feet in length, though most typically measure three inches across.
Their slippery skin is ringed with folds known as annuli that encircle their bodies. Most are dark gray to brown, but some display vibrant orange or yellow markings which could serve as warnings to predators.
They possess sensitive tentacles between their eyes and nostrils that allow them to locate food or navigate their environment. Some species also release glands which release poisons in order to ward off predators.
They can be found across South America, Africa and Asia. Generally they prefer loose soil or leaf litter in tropical forests or near rivers and streams.